Student Threatened with Expulsion for Telling Truth About Native American Genocide

September 10, 2015   |   John Vibes

John Vibes
September 10, 2015

(ANTIMEDIA) Sacramento, CA — The fact that genocide was committed against Native Americans is indisputable and should be obvious to anyone who has taken an honest look at history. Unfortunately, there are still some people so deeply attached to American nationalism that they generally accept the philosophy of expansionism and colonialism practiced by conquering Europeans generations ago and carried on as the “Manifest Destiny” by the U.S. government in the 19th century. In many cases, teachers in public schools and government-regulated universities simply pass along the same lies about the founding of America that they were told in school.

In one such case, a California State University, Sacramento professor not only rejected one of his student’s claims that there was a genocide against the native people — he ended the class early and threatened the student with expulsion. According to 19-year-old student Chiitaanibah Johnson, her professor refused to allow her to make comments about the Native genocide during class — a time when it was appropriate to discuss the issue at hand. Instead, U.S. History Professor Maury Wiseman argued with her and insisted the native people did not face a genocide.

Johnson explained to ICTMN that “The whole thing started on Wednesday. He was talking about Native America and he said the word genocide. He paused and said ‘I don’t like to use that word because I think it is too strong for what happened’ and ‘genocide implies that it was on purpose and most native people were wiped out by European diseases.’”

Johnson was offended by his comments, but instead of arguing with him right then and there, she decided to write down his statement and research some facts to back herself up when she decided to raise the issue with him.

“I wrote it down. I was enraged for what I felt were obvious reasons. I didn’t say anything [on Wednesday] because I knew that if I didn’t have anything specific to back it up in terms of tangible or solid evidence that he would not take my comments into consideration,” she said.

That Friday she presented her research to him after he finished a lesson on Native American tribes.

He made it a point to say indigenous people were not peaceful. I was upset for obvious reasons. He’d mentioned how the French and the Dutch were allies and made it a point to say native people were killing each other before white settlers arrived,” she said of the lesson that week.

Johnson went on to explain that “On Friday, I raised my hand and I said, ‘I understand why we’re talking about the Portuguese people because it explains how they got to America. But I do not think it is fair to talk about Portuguese people as if they were only poor and brave. They became rich by raping and enslaving the indigenous lands and people that they ‘discovered.’ I told him, ‘You said genocide implies the purposeful extermination of people and that they were mostly wiped out by European diseases.’ I said, ‘That is not a true statement.’

While mainstream history tells us that America was a vast, uninhabited wasteland when European settlers began to arrive, there were actually an estimated 10 million Native Americans living there at the time. In just a few hundred years, that number was cut down to roughly 300,000 during a well-documented and consistent effort on the part of the U.S. government to eradicate their population and take their land.

Nevertheless,“He said, ‘Genocide is not what happened.’ I stood up and started reading from an article by the United Nations that said: ‘Genocide is the deliberate killing of another people, a sterilization of people and/or a kidnapping of their children,’ and he said, ‘That is enough.’”

“I said, ‘No. You have to tell the truth.’”

“He said, ‘If you want to come talk to me after class, now is not the time, you are hijacking my class.’’

Then he cancelled the class for that day and threatened Johnson with expulsion after everyone else was dismissed.

“He said, ‘You know what class? I am so sorry to everybody that this is happening. Please everyone come back on Wednesday have a good weekend.’”

Johnson said that after he dismissed the class he told her, “‘I do not appreciate this in my classroom.’ He began shaking his finger at me and said, ‘I don’t appreciate you making me sound like a racist and a bigot in my classroom. You have hijacked my lesson, taken everything out of context and I don’t care what kind of scholarship you have, or what kind of affiliation you have with the university, you will be disenrolled and expelled from this classroom.’”

Johnson later said that “To be kicked out of the classroom so quickly, I was floored and I thought, ‘Are you kidding me? This was the third day of class, and already you’re going to completely expel me?’ I didn’t call him names, I did not say he was racist, I did not use foul language – yes, I raised my voice because he raised his voice at me and was talking over me and wouldn’t let me say anything. I felt like I had my feet completely kicked out from under me. I felt like I approached the situation in a way that a student of the university level is supposed to approach a disagreement with the professor.

“I have been dealing with this kind of racism since I was a little girl,” she added. Once news of the story broke nationally, administrators with the university were forced to respond and insisted that regardless of what the professor said, Johnson will not be expelled for voicing her opinion and sharing her research.

Soon after, the Sacramento State History Department made a statement on Twitter saying “We regret this situation & are investigating; student is not disenrolled.”


This article (Student Threatened with Expulsion for Telling Truth About Native American Genocide) is free and open source. You have permission to republish this article under a Creative Commons license with attribution to John Vibes and theAntiMedia.org. Anti-Media Radio airs weeknights at 11pm Eastern/8pm Pacific. If you spot a typo, email edits@theantimedia.org.

Author: John Vibes

John Vibes joined Anti-Media as an independent journalist in October of 2014. His topics of interest include agorism, anarchism, consciousness, the Drug War, and spirituality. Born in Philadelphia, he currently resides in Maryland.

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137 Comments

  1. Portuguese people was never in the land where today is USA, we where in Brazil, and we don´t kill or rape anybody. The spanish they where in south america, but not in brazil, and the spanish have killed and rape a lot of people with the inquisition from european church at that time. The USA that we know, was habitated with american native or indians, then get refugees from ireland and great britain and holland, and they build the city New Amsterdam that today is New York. In that time and with the gold race that people start to occupy all the land from the american native and with the industrial revolution the trains have arrived to USA. With to many economic interests and with the american native people installed in the best land, the elite people in that time have starded the genocide.

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  2. Actually portuguese people raped, killed and invade south america as well, you should research your history… they were very coward and ruthless, killed many woman and children…

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  3. Here in Az they also teach that 95% of Native Americans were wiped out by dieases. For those of you who are to lazy to do your own research, watch: How The West Was Lost… It will give you a small taste of what really happened!

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  4. Fede Msv in brazil, not in any more country in south america, and like the spanish, we have trade slaves to, but Portugal was one of the first country to abolish slavery. Followed the reign of D. José I, when, on February 12, 1761, slavery was abolished by the Marquis of Pombal in Metropolis and India. However, only by Decree 1854, the first slaves to be freed were those of the State and later the Church by Decree 1856. And to the law of February 25, 1869 proclaimed the abolition of slavery throughout the Empire Portuguese, until the definitive end of 1878. All the death came with a war between portugal and the natives that have spain as sponsor, this was because of land, between 1750 and 1760. Then was a revolution and the portuguese and bazilian ended with the colonization pact, and starts the brazilian monarchy.

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  5. While, that is true. What they didn't tell you was those diseases were given to tribes via intentionally infected blankets. So, yes, indeed, it was genocide.

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  6. Dude, I am of Portuguese and Dutch descent. I am very aware of the destruction both those nations wreaked by being purveyors of slavery. It is not a history I am proud of. We're not talking the warm fuzzies from Vavao…..

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  7. it is shameful a professor of history doesn't know the native americans were purposely exterminated. infected blankets, slaughter of the buffalo, trail of tears…. wounded knee…. jeez … that professor should be fired for incompetence.

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  8. Didn't the Native Americans commit atrocities against each other for thousands of years before the European settlers arrived? Didn't the slaughter each other by the hundreds and thousands?

    Just a few questions to keep things real. Most of the Native Americans weren't exactly nice to each other to start with.

    I guess that doesn't matter.

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  9. Yes, they did have raiding parties and wars. but no, they didn't slaughter each other by the hundreds and thousands. You're thinking of the Europeans and Americans. Ever hear of the "Trail of Tears" and the smallpox impregnated blankets given to them by the American government or the genicidal orders given to irradicate a number of SW tribes? Go learn a little history.

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  10. Gee. People of different nations (in this case tribal nations) warred with each other? Like that's not ever happened before. Around the world. You're right. I've never heard of that before. I guess that makes it okay for another nation to invade and eradicate the occupying power, and then have a supposed "historian" teach the masses a fabrication to make that nation look better. You're totally right. It doesn't matter.

    I'm just keeping it real when I call you a fool.

    Fool.

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  11. I'm not saying they weren't treated badly by the Europeans. It was terrible. But they did kill each other by the hundreds and they did try to wipe out other tribes.

    Now why is it only the Native Americans that people are up in arms about. What about the atrocities committed by Ghengis Khan or the Romans? Why doesn't anyone what to complain about those?

    Or how the gauls were slaughtered or the Saxons why not those?

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  12. People killing each other over land and resources has been going on since the dawn of time. The Apaches raided, killed, raped, and kidnapped members of other tribes, taking control of their land and dring them south, and then had the same thing done to them by the Comanche. The U.S. army made a concerted effort to end Comanche raids by hunting their warriors down and destroying the horses they depended on for hunting and fighting until the last of them surrendered and were relocated to Indian Territory. I don't know if I would use the term genocide though. Although there were unarguably genocidal acts committed against various tribes, there was not a single systematic attempt to completely kill every last indigenous person. I would consider this to be more ethnocide because indigenous people were often relocated and forced to assimilate to a western lifestyle. In fact, Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act because he recognized that if the American Indians weren't relocated they would be completely wiped out by the settlers who coveted their land, so in a sort of twisted way this lesser of two evils was actually an act of compassion on his part. 90% of the estimated 20-90 million or so indigenous people in the pre-Columbian Americas died from Eurasian diseases they had no immunity to, diseases which usually raced ahead of the European conquerors, so to suggest that they were spread intentionally with blankets from the outset is false. This did happen, though on a much smaller scale. What happened to these people is one of the darkest and ugliest chapters in our history, but I do think there is a difference between the textbook genocides as defined by the U.N. and the tragedy of European colonization.

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  15. Lisa Gardner that is one of the dumbest conspiracy theories out there. I can't believe it's still making the rounds. Yes, they had aliens infect them and drop them from the mothership. You obviously know little about infectios disease if you believe that. those who infected the blankets would have also been sending rockets to the moon with the tech of the time. My grandfather was 100% Shawnee and I know there were terrible things done to the natives, but conspiracy thery does not help. Especcially not of the batshit crazy variety.

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  16. Any discussion on the massacres/ genocide of Native Americans MUST START with reading "Bartolome De Las Casas" (The name has different spellings) and his seminal book: "A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies." He was a white man, a contemporary of Columbus, later a bishop. He was one of the very first people to denounce the treatment of Native Americans and Africans.

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  20. Kevin John Hannon Europeans murdered almost ten million people just so they could steal the natives land…There is a big difference in that and a few Tribes squabbling!

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  21. the indians are the majority of the population in mexico and central america and dont exist in texas or florida (not counting recent immigration) who killed them then? the ones in texas caught diseases from europeans but not the mexicans… such a silly story

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  22. My biggest question is why are so many acting like this happened within the last 20 years. It was a century ago. Why not complain about the Romans and Ghengis Khan too. Yes it was terrible. And no one alive today had anything to do with it. No one alive today owes anyone for what was committed by the Romans or Ghengis Khan. No one owes anyone for what happened here

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  23. Learn from it and don't do it again. Why not get get up in arms over the genocide happening around the world now instead.

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  24. Bob Fitzgerald You are not only rude and uneducated, you are quite wrong. Here in Tucson Arizona General Lowell did quite purposely "donate" blankets infected with smallpox (at the time protocol was to burn anything that an infected person touched to prevent the spread) to the local Indian tribes specifically to eliminate them, it nearly wiped them all out. Those who did survive didn't have the strength to fight back and they were rounded up and herded onto reservations. In addition there is plenty of evidence that many people joined in the "purge of the savages", I have attached some light reading if you would like to actually educate yourself, not that I am holding my breath on that one. Many of these atrocities are equal to anything Germany did to the Jews; unfortunately "history" is written by the victors; thus professor dumb ass from the article. The internet has spread this knowledge mainstream and these atrocities will be harder and harder to hide from educated people. I suggest if your going to open your pie hole about it maybe you should do some reading first.

    http://www.history.org/foundation/journal/spring04/warfare.cfm

    http://nativeamericannetroots.net/diary/252

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  25. The Native American's didn't lie about it. This is about the truth and educating our youth, what good does it serve to pay for college if you aren't learning anything but a lie? How the hell are we going to compete in this world with this kind of "education"?

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  26. Yes natives warred with each other but didn't slaughter tens of thousands of other natives. There were millions of us before European settlers. Now there are just a few hundred thousand. My great grandma said when she was a little her parents were sent to prison and she sent to a native orphanage where they cut her hair and gave her a Christian name and forbade her to speak her native language. Eventually, years later, she was reconciled with her father, but never seen her mother again. Never knew what happened. This happened to thousands of families and children were taken from their parents……

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  28. It's true. White folks have diseased blankets to the natives to kill them. It's common knowledge.

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  29. I'm surprised at the extent that people dreally don't know a Damn thing about this land and it's fucked up history.

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  30. I'm talking about the bandeirantes, Ricardo you seem to copy/paste some text…but I invite you to read books outside your's contry library…, I don't know everything, but as a Paraguayan, Portuguese people, and then Brazilian people murder thousand of children in my land…, I think you people should recognize this, and never again repeat it. The world doesn't need more wars, we can talk all day about mistakes of the past, but the only way to never do them again is try to learn what really happened. Peace.

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  31. it always kills me when people use the argument that indians were killing each other before whites ever came. uhhh, of course they did, since indians were the only people there at the time! ane weren't whites killing whites all over europe? it even carries over to now. when people talk about blacks killling blacks, well, guess what? most white people are also killed by other white people! when killing goes on, it almost always goes on with a person's social group or family. so using that has ANY sort of defense for racially motivated killing, is absolutely ludicrous.

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  32. There is a very well documented book by De Brown:Bury my heart at Wounded Knee;all the info was taken from congress library,al documented step by step on how,nation after nation,natives were driven away from their land,taken to "reserves",rather concentration camps,had to render their weapons which they use for hunting;while white man killed buffalo by the 100's just to let them rot;some nations were given blankets from infected hospitals for the winter.if that was not genocide,then there is not a word for it but it was a crime…

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  34. Fede Msv i have write you a passage from a history book from brazil. Now we are sincronized, we have to learn with the past, and create a better future. The past is the past, we can not turn back. I will look for information, but if it´s true, i reconigze, not a problem, we have to know our past, reconigzit and ask forgiveness for our antecessors. Peace.

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  36. Pádráig O'Gáirmléadháigh yes they were, but not only in Portugal, but in all Europe, for almost 400 hundred years the inquisition have killed many people. But after the big quake in 1755 in Lisbon, our prime minister Marquês de Pombal have put an end to that, sending to the fire the priest ho have killed hundreds of people in the fire. That was the last time in Portugal that the inquisition have work in Portugal. But in your country they were particulary brutal also, they also have burn alive a lot of people with the crime of witchcraft. Like Fede Msv says, the past is the past. Peace.

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  37. Because the majority of the history we learned is a lie but try & tell the avg person that & your laughed at. Most people will never put in a quarter of the time researching history like I like to but I'm the fool in society by the uneducated masses look at me like. I have to just laugh.

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  38. Didn't Europeans commit atrocities on each other in the form of, oh I don't know, the Spanish inquisition, torcher chambers, religious persecution in the form of burning heretics (kinda why people came here)? So your point would be what exactly? That killing of a bunch of 'savages' is ok?
    Settlers handed natives blankets used on people who had small pox knowing it would kill them off. Natives were chased off their land, confined to inhospitable bits of land, children taken from them and taught to be 'civilized' in boarding schools where they were taught their culture and way of life was wrong and backward.
    Rome and Ghengis Khan conquered people but did not kill them all. The needed the bodies, the labor. Settlers clear cut native people for their own gain.

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  39. This is shameful for that "professor". I have a BA in history, one of my professors stated, " History is what historians say it is." Interpretations change, new facts come to light, old facts are re-interpreted. To not be able to discuss something in a university settings in a respectful manner is inexcusable and the professor needs to be disciplined. Professor are supposed to be teaching students to THINK.

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  40. So the fact that they fought each other (just like the europeans) means it was ok to wipe them out and steal their land?

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  41. Oh, you mean lie war between different nations? Didn't Christians kill hundreds of thousands of people, both in Europe and in the states for not converting to Christianity, or for "being witches"? Does the world, including our government, not go to war with each other over crap like oil, and religion and land?

    It is an irrelevant theory. Oh, and let's not forget the war between the North and South. False equivalency does not change historical facts.

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  42. Kevin John Hannon Because we are talking about our sins, not the sins of others. Is it ok to be totally immoral because others have been? Is it ok to kill and steal land from others because others have done that? So you defend immorality. Unfortunately this country has always defended it's immoral acts, still goes on today.

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  43. Bob Fitzgerald Ubfortunately she is correct. They would take the blankets from smallpox victims and instead of burning them like they usually did to stop the spread of the disease, they handed them out to the natives. That is reality. It is documented.

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  44. History is written by the winners. But it doesn't mean that it isn't lies.

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  45. You should really study history before commenting on a history article. Your comment just makes you look ludicrously ignorant.

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  47. I didn't say it absolved us of anything, but if they did it first then they're not really all that innocent, now are they 'Skip'. And I gotta tell you, there's a lot of fucking Indians roaming around for a race that's supposed to have been wiped off the planet by "white invaders"…it maybe you don't really understand the term "genocide". And I have to tell all you bleeding hearts something, I don't give a tinkered damn what happened over 500 years ago…I'm not apologizing for something that happened that far in the past, and I'm not going to feel guilty about it either, you know why, because nobody living today had a damn thing to do with any of it…LET IT GO already. You fucking apologists make me want to puke, I'm feel the same way about the slavery issue, no one alive in America today was a slave, or a slave owner…LET IT GO…I've had enough of this white devil bullshit.

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  48. the professor is wrong and should apologize to the student – what he "feels" and what occurred are two different things

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  49. the professor is wrong and should apologize to the student – what he "feels" and what occurred are two different things

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  50. fuck off stupid.. 40 to 50 % of ALL homicides are committd by negros…. that isn't excusable by any nation or measure.. sorry.. If you are human and are 12 % of ANY population.. and committ 50 % of the murders of any racial group.. or all of them… something is wrong with THEIR culture…… plain and fucking simple… As far as natives.. some texas tribes would eat their native breathren's hearts.. and brains. the natives that lived along the galveston gulf coast.. they would kill and eat their conquered … sorry but that is savage behavior… nowhere in europe at that time did any white people eat their own conquered people.. EVER…

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  51. fuck off stupid.. 40 to 50 % of ALL homicides are committd by negros…. that isn't excusable by any nation or measure.. sorry.. If you are human and are 12 % of ANY population.. and committ 50 % of the murders of any racial group.. or all of them… something is wrong with THEIR culture…… plain and fucking simple… As far as natives.. some texas tribes would eat their native breathren's hearts.. and brains. the natives that lived along the galveston gulf coast.. they would kill and eat their conquered … sorry but that is savage behavior… nowhere in europe at that time did any white people eat their own conquered people.. EVER…

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  52. you must be retarded.. Just ask the 'crow' how many of their people were slaughtered by other tribes….. yes, tens of thousands… fucking idiots.. you may be modern retards.. but you aren't entitled to your own facts..

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  53. you must be retarded.. Just ask the 'crow' how many of their people were slaughtered by other tribes….. yes, tens of thousands… fucking idiots.. you may be modern retards.. but you aren't entitled to your own facts..

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  54. hey ricardo, you dumb bastard retard.. 80 % of all africans slaves went to the carribean and south america.. NOT North America… learn history asshole…

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  55. hey ricardo, you dumb bastard retard.. 80 % of all africans slaves went to the carribean and south america.. NOT North America… learn history asshole…

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  56. William Bryon Phillips your arguments are vile and untrue. Most whites ARE KILLED BY OTHER WHITES. YOU ARE WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS CULTURE. READ A REAL BOOK NOT YOUR RACIST NEO NAZI PROPAGANDA.

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  57. What? So it was just the Spaniards then huh? The Portuguese were so peaceful and coexisted with the natives huh? Give me a break.

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  58. William Bryon Phillips Apparently not only are you a hilariously stupid, vicious, racist little buffoon….but you are hilariously stupid, vicious, racist little buffoon that does not understand how math works. Blacks make up 12-13 percent of the population….yet you claim they are responsible for 40-50% of the total murders….never mind the fact that 80% of murders invovling white victims are commited exclusively by white people…..so…..do we now have "White on White Crime Problem" now…..you fucking imbecile?

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  59. I think a closer phrase is "ethnic cleansing". Not to mention colonialism, brutality, and racism by white Americans. Not genocide. And this is coming from someone whose Great Grandmother was stolen and raised white The main purpose of American policy varied, but during the most brutal period in the 19th century, the intent was to steal native land and wipe out native culture, not wipe out natives. Wiping out the population came as an afterthought as a part of point one and two when natives unsurprisingly didn't go along quietly. It didn't help that many of the soldiers who perpetrated the war against the natives were brutal and sadistic, not to mention very efficient at killing enemies with far inferior technology and numbers. Far more natives were killed by disease than by warfare, but that's beside the point. I don't think the professor was right, but the word "genocide", in spite of the UN definition, really is more of a systematic desire to exterminate a population on a mass scale, as a primary motive, not as an afterthought.

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  60. Two sentences can change the attitude of the university system… well.. most of them…

    "I pay you to teach me. I am your boss." From that assertion any issue can/should be adressed from historical inaccruacies to universities changing student sceduals without proper notification. Any student should stand in that position of power because in many universities it is the student's time and dime on the line, not the university's.

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  62. Ethnic cleansing is a synonym of genocide. Look it up! it is definintion is "the mass expulsion or killing of members of an unwanted ethnic or religious group in a society" Genocide is defined "the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation" There really is no difference other than ethnic cleansing can infer you MOVE the people to a different location. We did do that, but we did also eliminate over 90% of the native population as well, so it really was more genocide than ethnic cleansing. One might argue that many of the native's deaths were the result of "war" with settlers, but it by no means covers the scope of the killing. Whatever words you dress it up in it was a horrible part of our history, just like slavery of both europeons in the form of indentured servants and africans in the form of actual slavery. But the fact remains that it DID happen, however, 200 plus years later it is time for all of us to accept it as a dark time in our history and move on to a hopefully more enlightened future. In my opinion, when someone gets as upset as this professor did about someone discussing a difference of opinion, it does in fact suggest some, perhaps "unconscious", racist feelings. It appears to me this student was using a proper, educated, and thought out approach to address their "difference of opinion". One would expect a professor, or any reasonably educated person, to be able to handle discussing different views on the same subject. If one can not handle a discussion, or feels that a discussion that is not his view point is "hijacking his class" it indicates that perhaps this professor should consider a career change!

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  63. Michele Hoyt synonyms means similar, but not the same. I agree in principle if not degree. Have you heard of Godwin's law whereby all discussions will inevitably invoke Hitler, as the effort to call something bad gets one upped again and again until it reaches the pinnacle of Hitler? Its important to make distinctions in things to avoid every single murderous act being eventually turned into genocide. This is not to make white people feel better, or to belittle the deaths of MILLIONS of Natives who were killed in wars, massive forced migrations, slaughters, murders, cultural decimation, settler violence and disease, but to honor the Tutsis, the Armenians, the Jews and Gypsies and others who were hauled off to charnal houses specifically for the purpose of removing their race from the planet, and also to prevent the overuse of a term that, like racism, will make many people simply TUNE OUT the noise and turn their backs on all but the most egregious acts. I agree that the professor handled this in the worst way possible. It was a prime opportunity for a spiritied discussion, and instead a person who disagreed was shut down without a chance for that.

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  64. William Bryon Phillips You really are either ignorant or so brain washed you are unable to see the truth… I read the same story you did, that stated the same statistics you stated, but I read it all the way through…I only read it after finding out from FBI statistics and taking just one year (2013) 83% of white murders were committed by whites. That means that only 17% were committed by African Americans/Native Americans/Pacific Islanders/Asians combined. Meanwhile 90% fo African American murders were committed by African Americans, meaning only 10% were committed by whites//Native Americans/Pacific Islanders/Asians combined. Meanwhile of all other races 60% of murders were committed by the other races, meaning 40% were committed by African Americans and Whites. The story you either did not finish reading or which you chose to ignore the rest of states that 93 per cent of black victims were killed by blacks and 84 per cent of white victims were killed by whites…numbers quite close to what I found. The differences can be explained as you and your source quoted homocide and I and my source quoted murder…As to Cannibalism, Europe practiced forms of cannibalism well into the early 1900s, they did is not so much as nutrition or a sick sort of glee, but as a superstitious belief that it cured many specific illnesses, The natives practiced a ritualistic cannibalism, probably less about healing medical illness as a sprititual healing/growth, but both Europeans and Natives practiced ritualistic cannibalism as any google search on the subject can direct you to books and research on the subject. NONE of us want to admit or talk about the superstitious, crazy things our ancestors did that are so very Taboo today, but the information is there for you to read if you were willing to take the time, but as you appear to be one of those who gets his "facts" from sound bites, headlines and/or first sentences of stories rather than the whole story, or from blogs rather than news, I suspect you will not.

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  65. Lisa Gardner As far as we know, this is a combination of intentional genocide and accidental biological warfare. Between 1492 and Colombo's expedition (no, not Columbus) which was the initial contact with Europeans, and 1607-1620, when English settlements started, there was plenty of contact between Europeans and Native Americans, mostly Spanish and Portuguese. It is during this 120 year period that European diseases wiped out a large number of the Natives. Of course, for the next 250 years after that, there were ongoing campaigns to further eliminate the Native population, or, at least, assimilate them into the English speaking culture in what would become the United States and Canada. The Trail of Tears certainly existed, as well as the "Indian Wars," for almost 100 years, 1805-1895. The two ideas are not mutually exclusive: it was both diseases and an ongoing intentional campaign of genocide.

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  66. William Bryon Phillips So only YOU are entitled to your own FACTS? Because as I pointed out in the above thread where you cite 50% of homocides are committed by blacks, you certainly were picking and choosing which facts you wanted….whether from IGNORANCE of not understanding the story you got your facts from, LAZINESS, in not reading the whole story, or perhaps just a complete lack of READING COMPREHENSION? Or maybe you are just one of those people who is just overall brainwashed and unable to think and instead parrot the rhetoric you hear, but only the parts you like?

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  67. William Bryon Phillips 1: you dont have any education, you are rude, and you are have no reason to offend me. 2: You dont no to read even in your language, in any comment that i wrote, i said that Portuguese people take african slaves to north america, but we have take to south america. 3: if you dont no, british have take african slaves to north american. If i was like you i call you name also, but i´m a very well educated person. Bye

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  68. Katastic Steebs you also dont understand what i wrote in your language, i suggest you to read again all my commments. If you want i can send you links from portuguese and brasilian history. It´s free!!!

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  69. Conor Murphy master explain me why there are indians in mexico and central america and not in USA. that would make me less ignorant

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  70. You always run into the moral equivalency people, along with the manifest destiny folks in these discussions. Might makes right, history is written by the victors and all of that. They're also the first to squawk when their own ox is gored. Scream that they're being persecuted when they don't get their way. If it wasn't so pathetic it would be amusing.

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  71. It's her third day in class. Why didn't she just sit down and listen? Whether he's correct or not is not up to her. It isn't up to her to "set the record straight." There have been students like this in college classes forever– and they are widely regarded as assholes by the other students who are in the class to learn something from the professor, not from their opinionated classmates. He was right to dismiss her from the class after she disrupted it.

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  72. Why go to university then? Obviously you think students already know everything and should be allowed to run the institution.

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  73. I think is evident where the American pride and ego shows on people comments trying to hide the horrible truth. We are not a nation of little nowrong doing angels..we have good people but this nation and many others have committted attrocities and continue to do so around the world. A prideful and egotistic american will reply: oh yea, why don't you move to syria then lol

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  74. In college, students aren't just there to learn 'facts', but to learn how to think, research and form opinions on their own. This young woman was inspired by the teacher's lecture to do her own research into the topic. The teacher could have kept control of the situation by giving her an opportunity to explain her stance and asking her back up her 'lecture' with facts. Then he could have asked the rest of the class if they had opinions or questions in regard to the topic at hand. At college level the students shouldn't be limited to memorizing and regurgitating the lesson, but using it as an starting point to really understand the topic.

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  75. So if a Histroy professor starts teaching that the Holocaust never happened, students should just accept that and not question him? "Whether he's correct or not is not up to her" Actually, it's not up to him if he's correct either, it's up to the facts to decide if he is correct or not, and there should NEVER be a negative response for correcting someone who is supposed to be teaching the facts.

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  76. I fail to see where any claim of "students already know everything" was made. The comment was about students standing up for themselves. They pay to be there, they shouldn't be powerless against the institution or professors.

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  77. Native populations in New England in the 1600s were decimated by European diseases. That was not necessarily an intentional genocide. Some even believe that is was chickenpox introduced accidentally that caused the epidemics. On the other hand, the expulsion of the Cherokee people from the Southeast and the long "Trail of Tears" was pretty clearly a combination of property theft and genocide. The approach of the USA to Chrokee people was not unlike what is happening to Palestinians right now. They were pushed off their historic land by newcomers and into reservations and if they fought back they were labeled as terrorists and exterminated by government troops.

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  78. On behalf of white people, I would like to apologize for some of the comments made by other white people on this thread. Particularly those living in red states. I hope Native and African Americans alike understand that there is a struggle between white people, where we strongly disagree with each other about this "white supremacy" attitude that is so seemingly prevalent behind closed doors. There is no secret agenda between whites, just a bunch of white assholes among us who are beyond our control when it comes to their bigoted vitriol. What white people like this really need to understand is that any facts which may skew a hostile image of blacks are likely not taking into account the severely damaged social fabrics from which many black families are coming from. Remember that scene from Boyz in the Hood, when Trey's Dad explains that there are gun stores and liquor stores on every corner, they want us to kill each other. White people need to understand that when they do experience hostility from black people living in these areas, that white people have a lot to do with how that came to be. It would be prudent to be more respectful of that injustice and look for ways to balance the scales, rather than demonize black people all the time. And… It's 2015, ehite people don't say"negros" anymore William Bryon Phillips. Get a grip.

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  79. Agreed. This young person is exactly the kind of student you want in a classroom. The professor seemed a little controlling and in fact I believe in regards to his statement "you made me seem like a racist" I would say "if the shoe fits".

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  80. How distressing to read "whether he's correct or not is not up to her to "set the record straight." This is the kind of systemic racism that has been going on for decades if not centuries. You're in college. You better learn to speak up or become a sheep.

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  81. Anthony Miller His point was that when talking about history, a genocide is generally accepted to mean a deliberate campaign to, in a very short period of time, kill off an entire ethnic group. What the Europeans did was try to conquer, subjugate and plunder. When you over broaden a definition, it ceases to have meaning.

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  82. Aj Nolley a genocide is generally accepted to mean a deliberate campaign to, in a very short period of time, kill off an entire ethnic group. What the Europeans did was try to conquer, subjugate and plunder. When you over broaden a definition, it ceases to have meaning.

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  83. Theresa Maher
    No this young person is the type you want in your business. Schools especially University have become indoctrination camps. Get your kids out of public schools there are many new forms of education that work better.

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  84. "So called "Native Americans" are just a bunch of freaking crybabies. Conquest, rape and plunder are the history of the *world* not just these United States. If we as a country were to pander to every single class of people who were wronged by some other class or group of people we would end up in a vicious cycle of neverending handouts.

    Oh wait . . .

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  86. One reason the student should NOT have challenged the professor during class-time (how she did) is that the professor was teaching what was in the textbook. Also, the student, by demanding that the prof. "Tell the truth…", was actually accusing the prof. of being a liar. The student should have framed her concerns in the form of a question and let the prof. have time to explain or do research and explain during the next class-time. Also, the student kept quiet during the first lecture and allowed herself to become a ticking time bomb of anger— finally using her research ammunition, the student interrupted a new lecture to address the previous lecture. The student should have raised her hand during the first lecture to say that she felt upset about what the textbook stated. She, the student, should have shown respect to the prof., regardless of her feelings. The professor must have felt threatened to have reacted the way he did. However, he should have found a different way to diffuse the situation. He could have just agreed with the student and said, "Yes, there are many people who perceive the word 'genocide' the way you have explained and the westward expansion of settlers did result in a horrific reduction of native populations. Thank you for sharing your research, but now we must move on to the next chapter." Remember, too, that we are reading only the student's version of the encounter. I would like to read what the prof. had to say, but I am sure he will never talk about it. 🙁

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  87. Ted Govostis You need to recheck the definition, – the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation. – ( no time frame mentioned), also, research the forced removal of Native children from their parents and how they were forced to give up their heritage and punished anytime they did ANYTHING not Christian, the destruction of a way of life is genocide.

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  88. Ted Govostis When it is the official policy of the United STates of America to slaughter tens of millions of buffalo to deprive Plains Indians their primary source of food, clothing, and materials for everyday life, that is genocide. Sure, natie peoples didn't have resistence to diseases like smallpox, but to deny fact is arrogant and stupid.

    College professors are not gods — their shit stinks, just like every other human being's. The purpose of attending college is to learn to think, to face new intellectual challenges, and to learn. Spending two minutes of time from one class is hardly "hijacking" the class. That professor is a petulant bitch who has been preening on his marble podium too long.

    Good luck to her getting anything but a lousy barely-passing grade in that class.

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  89. Most native Americans were indeed killed by European diseases, by current thinking around 90 percent of the pre-contact population.

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  90. It is our duty to speak up when obvious indoctrination is occuring. Her actions were 100% appropriate. If she were just to sit back, accept "what the text book says" (which is NOT what a professor does BTW), and let him continue the spreading of lies, she would have been part of the problem. She prevented that teacher from spreading LIES as if they were TRUTHS. History and science are NOT SUBJECTIVE or up to INPRETATION! The teacher should have felt threatened, becuase he was being called out on his lies and finally someone was intelligent enough and brave enough to stand up to his POS. How would you like it if your entire family, your entire heritage, your entire history was wiped out by a group of people, then those people took over and started telling you that they didn't? HOPEFULLY you would stand up… But then again…

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  91. There were certainly some elements of genocide in how native Americans were treated by the settlers, but the professor was correct that most natives died of imported diseases – in some cases, smallpox epidemics wiped out 90% or more of a tribe in one go. Likewise, the natives were no more peaceful than the Europeans, and did in fact engage in wars among themselves long before the Europeans arrived. The Cherokee, for instance, had a history of raiding neighboring tribes for slaves long before the settlers came, and many of the Indian wars were initiated by Indians. Likewise, while North America was not an "empty" continent as some claimed, there were large regions where the population density was less than 1 person per square mile – which certainly seemed empty to the settlers from a crowded Europe.

    This is not to say that native Americans were worse than other people, including Europeans; nor is this to say that they were treated fairly; just that they were (and are) people like anyone else, with the same flaws and the same virtues, and that outright murder of natives in North America was the exception rather than the rule.

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  92. The infected blankets thing never happened. It was once proposed in a case where settlers were surrounded by hostile natives and in fear of their lives, but it didn't happen then and there is no evidence that it ever actually happened anywhere. The rest is more or less correct.

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  93. I understand why the professor was reluctant to lable US policy toward Natives as "genocide." The word "genocide" implies a systematic policy of deliberate extermination and while many Natives were certainly killed, the majority of Americans were killed by disease before they made direct contact with whites. Certainly there were actions and policies which contributed to the virtual extermination of the Native population, but few were officially done with that explicit intent; individuals may have held contemptuous and even genocidal ideas about Natives but it doesn't necessarily follow that those ideas were a part of public policy. Even when a notorious Indian hater like Andrew Jackson was president he pursued a policy of removal – not extermination.
    I think this idea that the most abhorent elements of American history and society represent the whole is best expressed in the "small pox blankets" story. The reality is that there is only one confirmed instance of this happening and that there is some dispute as to the efficacy of the policy – ie. many scholars believe that the natives in question had already been exposed to small pox. What bothers me though is not the question of whether this individual story is true, but the fact that many people take a single legitimate instance of a deliberate attempt to wage biological warfare against native americans and conflate that instance with all Native deaths from disease as if the (mosty) inadvertant spread of disease were a component in a deliberate genocide.
    The point is that the virtual extermination of Native Americans from this continent is a result of many different causes, from outright hatred and racism, to conflict over resources to cultural misunderstandings, to disease. I would say that racism and cultural incompatibility were certainly overarching themes to the conquest of the United States, but I would also be reluctant to call the extermination of the natives "genocide," because I think the reality is too complex to patch it together into the sort of deliberate and systematic attempt to exterminate a population which the term "genocide implies."
    Having said that Native Americans are not a single ethnic group. It is quite possible that the genocide charge would hold up for the official actions that the US or its colonial predecessors took toward any individual Native nation.

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  94. Sure many died from having no immunity to disease, but to deny Genocides were committed against various American First Nations is not only false, it demonstrates that you, as well as this professor, have not bothered to do your homework. There is a mountain of scholarly evidence that proves this fact.

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  95. Europeans have always been at war. Yes, First Nations didn't need lessons in war, but they also faught blood feuds, not wars of attrition. Just take a look at slavery. Frequently African slaves fled to groups like the Seminoles, where they were not only provided with a safe haven, they were adopted in, and given full rights. They even helped fight against the European invaders. Certainly not every First Nation and the USA faced Genocide, but to deny Genocide happened in the USA is not only totally false, it goes against an army of respected academics in the field, well versed in the legal definition of Genocide, who categorically conclude Genocide in the USA did in fact happen. The fact is, this "professor" is not a scholarly expert in Genocide.

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  96. The number that died from disease varies, depending on which estimate one chooses to cite. 90% is the absolute high end.

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  97. Nonsense. At the University level, history was NOT meant to be taught as rot education, like a religion. This "professor" obviously was a terrible academic. A real academic would have not only been secure in their own abilties, but would encourage students to challenge what they read. First question is always, what is the author's thesis? Followed by questions like, did the author prove their thesis? Was it a well rounded study? There are hundreds of academic works on Genocides in the USA against First Nations, by countless respected academics, published by respected academic presses. Obviously, this professor isn't a specialist in Genocide, and is clearly not versed in the field of study.

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  98. Exactly. At the university level, history is not supposed to be rot education. This "professor" was a terrible academic.

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  99. Because Universities are supposed to encourage something called "Academic Freedom," NOT supress it. So long as she backs her study up with evidence, she is EXACTLY the kind of student Universities want. This "professor" violated her Academic Freedom.

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  100. Larkin Vonalt Because Academic Freedom is the corner stone of Academia. This "professor" clearly violated her Academic Freeedom. So long as her evidence is cited and well researched, she has every right to disagree. The "professor" is supposed to be an expert in what he is teaching, and know the field of study, just like any Doctor in any given field. The fact that this "professor" doesn't know there were several Genocides committed in the USA against First Nations, shows he is NOT familiar with the Academic literature at all. He wasn't willing to encourage or engage in Academic debate at all. Instead, he tried to silence Academic debate. That tells me, this individual was insecure in his own Academic knowledge of the field.

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  101. Alan Light Wrong. Jeffrey Amnherst gave the order, following the end of the Pontiac Uprising. There was no war at the time. The sides had made peace.

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  102. Ted Govostis No where does it say anything about a limited time period. There are three historical definitions of Genocide. First, Raphael Lemkin's, the man who invented the Term; second, the UN Secretariat's 1946 draft definition based on Lemkin's work, and finally the UN ratified version in 1948. Both Lemkin's and the 1946 definition included ethnocide [cultural genocide] as genocide. The 1948 deifintion limited the scope, exlcuding most cases of ethnocide. While not all Crimes Against Humanity committed against First Nations in the USA constituted Genocide, there most certainly were numerous cases of genocide committed against American First Nations, and there are countless academic works published on this history. This "professor" simply doesn't know the field of study, obviously, or his course would have actually covered the published academic literature on the subject, rather than his unqualified opinions.

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  103. It wasn't the diseases that caused the genocide and her numbers are very low. In 1491 a conservative estimate of 10 million is how many people were under the control of the Triple Alliance commonly known as the Aztecs. A more realistic population of between 50 and 70 Million people inhabbited North and South America, with high counters putting the population at over 100 million. European disease exacted a terrible toll on the population. This is a given, but not genocide, just the sad lack of immunity. Genocide began with Columbus's policies in 1493.

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  104. Classroom instruction, especially at college level, is not ABSOLUTE…the exception being things like math and spelling and some science facts…without questioning of things we are taught whether history, social studies, philosophies, religions and such, you are not learning, you are memorizing… a good professor will encourage the students to think. I remember once in college I had to research and write a paper that I knew the moment I began the project that I was going to fail it because I new my views and the research I was doing were going to conflict with the professor, I had already had this happen once, leading to a situation where EVERYTHING i commented in the class was immediately disregarded because I had disagreed with a point the professor made and argued it admirably, he still failed me saying he wrote the text and so his word on it was law. Anyhow I wrote my paper according to my views, using my research to show my stance. THIS professor was an excellent teacher and gave me an a+ on the paper, because it was well written and well documented, although she also told me she disagreed with my stance. We agreed to disagree, allowing that some subjects were in fact subjective and that our personal experiences colored feelings and NOTHING would change that. It is obvious this professor was not able to put his personal feelings aside and therefore could not be objective, and hence felt threatened. I still say he needs to rethink his profession if he can not handle a student disagreeing with him.

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  105. Ok prosessor the Jews do not have the only case of genocide in history; it has happened to many people in history so please stop acting like you're all special because of it.If you do not believe what we did to Native peoples you are a fool. There is evidence that polio blankets were given to them on purpose,the Trail of tears was no less deadly than the Battan death march, and save for the Quakers the Government of the US broke every treaty they ever made. We are still busy insulting them to their faces with racist team mascots and Native people suffer the highest rates of rape and violence still today. Girlfriend you need to replace your teacher because while he thinks he's not racist the fact that he does not want to teach or hear the truth means he's an ignorant fuck who should not be teaching history.

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  106. Wow thats some serious apologist bullshit. Jackson was known for killing indians. Removal and relocation? How and to where? Howabout I show up to your house today and make you move thousands of miles in foot to the middle of no where. There is documentation that the idea of smallpox blankets was talked about…and Indians somehow got smallpox, it's not a stretch to figure out how. Please don't act like our government and the first settlers did not use germ warfare to their advantage..and as far as cultural incompatability? If you go to someones house and you don't like them YOU LEAVE! NOT THEM!You don't stick around and tell them they are not using their house correctly and to get out. Custer is a great symbol for American assholery: Rode out to the middle of no where to fuck with the indians and got his ass handed to him just like he deserved. Lets all keep acting like our government treats people like rainbows and puppies and allow ignorant racists to write our history it seems to be working out great.

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  107. so if we give everybody Anthrax poisoning by accident its ok? So sad too bad ? Do you go to your friends houses when you're sick? Do you purposely get them sick to make them move so you can have their house? It does'nt really matter the % of people; the fact is AMerica and Americans fucked them over at every turn and still are.

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  108. Patrick Davis Don't confuse accident with purpose, and ignorance with genocide. There will still be many murders and aggresions against Native Americans to atone for.

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  109. David King Wars of attrition have always been the exception rather than the rule. Native Americans fought more than just blood feuds. Likewise they had slavery long before Europeans arrived – and I just happened to come across a modern interpretation of the Lost Colony today that argued pretty convincingly that those colonists were in fact captured and enslaved by Native Americans, who then sold many of them on to a number of other tribes – and that the English authorities of the time knew about it but denied it because they didn't have the power to do anything about it and didn't want bad press. It seems that the colonists successfully sought refuge with friendly tribes, but then plague came and their friends mostly died, leaving them exposed to the traditional enemies of that tribe.

    Disease was the big killer, and hostilities were initiated by all sides.

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  112. In the past every conquest was well regarded. with "freedom" to loot or kill. These days Israel has to cover his operations in Palestine to not to scandalize pubic opinion. For that reason I doubt very much that what happened in 1600 is what is happening in Israel and Palestine these days. Why the indian populatin in Mexico survived, they were also in contact with europeans?

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  113. you seem to forget the saying "the only good indian is a dead indian." we were taught (in Florida back in the '70s) about how the european settlers got rid of the natives in every possible way, lead shot, disease, betrayal, theft, starvation, and a systematic, organized policy, sanctioned by the government. the plan was to kill them all off. this prof. has a very insecure psyche if he cannot and will not allow the truth to be taught in his classroom.

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  114. as a University professor who teaches Native American Studies I find myself in a quandry about this news article and I suspect there may be more to the matter. Interestingly both the student and the professor have valid points….it is clear that disease reduced indigenous pops by significant numbers even well into the early 1900s (much of this is undocumented but there are good records for Spanish areas of the early 1500s, as well as some of the mid 1800s Plains epidemics), so yes some of the decline was unintentional, but from the European perspective probably advantageous. Certainly there was an aggressive policy by Colonial nations, and later America, for acquisition of land, labor and resources (the professor should avail himself to the ample literature on the encomienda system as experienced in California). Subsequent institutional policies & actions were (and still are) focused on cultural change to eliminate or alter indigenous economies, leadership, religion, language and family. These policies were put into practice via removal, boarding schools, reservations, missionization, allotment, urban relocation etc. There is a large amount of scholarship on California native experiences from the Spanish period to today for both the student and the professor to read and gain a larger understanding of the processes and motivations for population decline, land loss, and cultural changes (as well as resistence movements).

    And yes Native peoples engaged in warfare (as well as intermarriage and political alliances) to acquire the land & resources of their own neighbors. The Great Lakes beaver wars are one example, as is the Aztec expansion. The "peaceful Indian living in total harmony with the land" is such a silly hippy myth, as is the assertion that Native people only engaged in minor spats…all humans modify the enviroment and compete with other groups for access to resources, often with significant and devastating effect. And yes some Native peoples stratigically allied themselves with Colonial powers to gain advantages without fully understanding the larger context. One example would be those Algonkian groups who initially welcomed the English as a way to balance off the power of their rival neighbors along the eastern coasts. To claim that Native people were/are just helpless vicitims denies our own agency in making decisions (even bad ones). Attend any tribal council meeting today and see how our leaders continue to make mistakes or choose personal/family interests over larger concerns! Politics is messy and imprecise, then and now. Again, there is plenty of scholarship on these issues. But it is important to recognize that there was (and is) no single experience…each of the 500+ nations have dealt with all of this in their own unique ways. Even within California there is a vast range of experiences.

    My guess is the student was very passionate about her perspective and we all want students who are eager to learn! But from my own personal experience as a University instructor I know it can be challenging to deal with students (including those who are still in their teens) who are excited, but don't yet know how to direct their energies….the goal is never to alienate anyone, but at the same time there are 50 other students trying to learn material without getting into a shouting match. It seems that both the student and the instructor could engage in a passionate, yet intellectual, discussion that addresses all of the complexities. I would have encouraged this student to persue her interests by helping her find literature as well as her own community's oral histories that both supports and challenges her ideas; she should explore the topics and advance her arguments, presenting them to the calss for group discussion, but learn to do this in a way that doesn't alienate the audience. (People generally don't listen very well when they are being shouted at).

    I don't know about the California system but disenrolling a student is unlikely. At my school if an instructor or other students feel that someone has created a hostile learning environment then there are administrative steps available. But first and foremost is to meet with the student to work things out in a polite and respectful way….but its a 2 way street, and the student needs to be willing to learn how to channel their passions in a way that is not disruptive to others as well. News articles like this one offer one side of the story, but probably not the complete version…hopefull there will be a follow up.

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  115. They gave the Indians small pox disguised as blankets oh yeah the trail of tears rings a bell to anyone gotta love amerikkk

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  116. Yes natives engaged in war. So what, how is that relevant? All peoples have engaged in war and political intrigue. Worthy of note is typically killing the enemy was rarely the goal of native wars. Asserting dominance defending or taking territory, property and women did not require slaughtering their enemy. That is a far cry from an intentional policy to exterminate a people, their traditions and culture. While natives did die from casual contact with disease they had no immunity to. The vast majority were killed as a result of malicious intent. Natives were deliberately exposed to diseases known to be fatal to them. Nor was germ warfare the only method used in an effort to exterminate Native Peoples, their culture and traditions. Native nations universally have been the subject of unwarranted attacks and massacres for the sole purpose of eradicating them from the land scape in order to obtain the resources and their land. Often involving the wholesale slaughter of unarmed defenseless women and children. Natives were skinned for their hides. Redskin hides were tanned, processed and sold alongside deer skin, elk skins, beaver skin et all. General Washington's troops made leggings from native people's hides. As part of one extermination attempt Reverend Chivington ordered the attack, saying "Damn any man who sympathizes with Indians," he said. "Kill and scalp all, big and little; nits make lice" (meaning children become adults. Reverend Chivington's troops rode into Sand Creek slaughtering an peaceful unarmed defenseless native population that believed they were under President Lincoln protection beating mothers to death with the corpse of their babies. Pregnant women bodies were cut open, the fetuses taken from them. Native mens testicles and native women's breasts were cut from them, and used to make saddle horns, hat bands, tobacco pouches, and put on public display in Denver. Their horses wore reins and the soldiers wore chaps made from redskins, with the intent of instilling terror in native people For generations Native children were removed from their homes and sent to boarding schools whose stated purpose was to beat the indian out of them. During which time they were subjected to a whole litany of documented abuses from sodomy to torture. Native women underwent forced sterilization for generations. Tens of millions of buffalo were exterminated as part of a scorched earth policy in a deliberate attempt to wipe out native food supply and starve natives to death.

    Until 1978 it was a federal offense for Native People to pray according to their beliefs and tradition. Many were shot, maimed, murdered and imprisoned for doing so. At Wounded Knee One over three hundred unarmed men, women and children were slaughtered for simply praying. The list of atrocities, abuses, and governmental policies to exterminate Native people spans centuries preceding the foundation of our Nation on Native soil and continuous to this day.

    Adolph Hitler praised how American Government dealt with their Indian problem and modeled his final solution after the American model. To claim genocide was not an official governmental policy that continues to this day is revisionist history and academic incompetence that serves to perpetrate the genocide of Native people their culture, traditions and history. To claim that our nation does not have a five hundred year history of attempting to committed genocide against Our Indigenous People is like Muslims and Nazis claiming the holocaust never occurred.

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  117. I'm a Native American and find the word "genocide" too extreme and also the infected blankets is debatable. Also it's a long time ago and rest!

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